Wine Traffic #208 For 3�Feb�2004

By Brian Vincent

Table Of Contents

Introduction

This is the 208th issue of the Wine Weekly News publication. Its main goal is to recover from WineConf. It also serves to inform you of what's going on around Wine. Wine is an open source implementation of the Windows API on top of X and Unix. Think of it as a Windows compatibility layer. Wine does not require Microsoft Windows, as it is a completely alternative implementation consisting of 100% Microsoft-free code, but it can optionally use native system DLLs if they are available. You can find more info at www.winehq.org (http://www.winehq.org)

1. WineConf 2004 Summary

30�Jan�2004�-�1�Feb�2004 (1 post) Archive Link: "News"

Topics: WineConf 2004

People: ,�Michael Stefaniuc,�Ferenc Wagner,�Microsoft,�Tom Wickline,�Boaz Harrosh,�News,�Marcus Meissner,�Gavriel State,�Alexandre Julliard,�Jeremy White,�Lionel Ulmer,�Shachar Shemesh,�Eric Pouech,�Dimi Paun,�TransGaming,�CodeWeavers,�Francois Gouget,�Aric Stewart,�Juan Lang,�ReactOS,�Mike Hearn,�Jeremy Newman,�Steven Edwards,�Mark

WineConf 2004 was a rousing success! Below is a summary of the events and discussions. In this week's Wine Weekly News I'll include more information, such as URL's for photos, irc logs, and a list of who was in attendance. For now I wanted to get out a nice update of what it was all about. If you were at the conference you'll note that my summaries of the presentations don't exactly follow the format of the presenters. In part that's because bullet points don't translate well to paragraphs. If you feel I've left something important out, please contact me and I'll make sure to correct it (vinn -at- theshell dot com.)

I arrived in town late Friday afternoon. My arrival was shortly before Boaz Harrosh, Shachar Shemesh, and Dimi Paun so I decided to rent a car and come back to the airport to pick them up. We headed straight for CodeWeavers office downtown near the University of Minnesota. About fifteen people had already gathered there, including Alexandre and the rest of the CodeWeavers staff. It was dinner, so we made plans to go out to a Mexican restaurant. Afterwards we returned to our hotel and checked in. A group of us gathered for drinks across the street. The conversation varied from Wine and CodeWeavers development to current events. The night ended after midnight.

Everyone gathered at CodeWeavers' office the next day at 8:30. Jeremy Newman, Jeremy White, and Joe Baker worked on getting the network and video stream set up. The video needed to be streamed through CodeWeavers' ISP located five miles across town. Newman and Jeremy ifdown'ed the the network interface to reset it but realized after the fact they had effectively killed the network connection (kind of hard to ifup an interface on a server you can't talk to). Hence, no video streaming in the morning. Newman placed some phone calls to get someone to run over to the colo to bring it back up. A few minor network issues later and things were back on schedule.

The fun began at 9:30. Jeremy White thanked everyone for coming and outlined the format. The idea was to initiate discussion on a broad range of topics and keep presentations to a minimum. Ample time for informal discussions was built into the schedule.

Alexandre Julliard gave the keynote speech. The topic of his talk covered the direction for Wine 0.9 and what had happened since WineConf 2002. Alexandre half-joking explained, "I can just reproduce the slides from the last one."

Of course, that's not quite true. Several areas of Wine have seen remarkable improvement and Alexandre took the time to outline some of the major improvements:

Alexandre mentioned the NPTL support was an annoying problem to devote resources to because, "It's just a lot of work just so that it still works." Jeremy White had another theory, "Microsoft is paying off the glibc guys to make our life hard." Alexandre hoped that in the coming year more time of his could be devoted to developing Wine rather than working around problems introduced by other projects. Unfortunately prelinking and exec shield issues loom on the horizon. Alexandre reinforced that he wanted to spend more time on real Wine development.

Despite that, a lot of work has been done. Wine is now compiled in STRICT mode. Our header files are in good shape. Wine is still quite portable. (The night before Alexandre mentioned informally that portability is not exactly a strict requirement, but it's a nice benefit worth maintaining.) He pointed out that Microsoft Office now "just works. You can use it all day long and you won't see the difference." Then he added that wasn't 100% true because, "The Paperclip still doesn't work."

Alexandre identified installation and configuration as areas needing some attention, "We have all the tools, we're just not using them." In particular, we now have wineboot, winecfg, regedit, and DLL's that self-register. The website is vastly improved compared to two years ago. Documentation is in decent shape but needs some work. One difficult problem is that the people who can write the documentation don't particularly know what people need from it.

Some interesting statistics appeared in the last slide. In the first five years of Wine development, 1993 - 1998, there were approximately 200,000 lines of code written. In the five years since then we've seen 1,000,000 more appear and since the last Wineconf we've seen the code size double. Clearly the license change to LGPL, a hot topic in 2002, hasn't proven to be hindrance.

Concerning future development, Alexandre put together a list quite similar to the To-Do list on WineHQ:

At this point the discussion became more informal. Alexandre remarked, "Once we have 0.9, 1.0 is no problem." Jeremy White wondered what, if anything, could be improved in the whole process. Everyone agreed that Alexandre's judgement in what to include was excellent. While he's the only one with CVS access, no one really cared. As Dimi said, "The one thing I noticed about Linus is he makes a lot more mistakes than you." Alexandre mentioned that although some patches get initially rejected, it's actually a compliment if a patch is in limbo. It means it wasn't bad enough to be immediately rejected. If it gets put aside there's a reasonable chance some changes can be made to get it included. His patch queue stretches about a week long, so if no feedback is given after a week it might be worth asking for an explanation why or send in a resubmission.

...

Alexandre's talk led nicely into Dimi's outline of what needs to be completed in order for Wine to have a 0.9 release and eventually reach version 1.0. Dimi spent a lot of time picking through all aspects of Wine searching for problems that needed to be resolved. He classified everything into three areas, issues that affected Wine developers, the problems faced by people interested in Winelib, and the interactions the end user has with Wine.

Fortunately things on the user side are pretty good. The new website really seems to have helped things. Right now it would be nice to improve the internationalization of it and that task is slated for the short-term as is the integration of a small Wine history page. Adding in an automatic test framework also seems to be on track thanks to the work of Ferenc Wagner. Documentation, overall, isn't in that bad of shape and no one complained at all about the tools used for creating documentation. Dimi hoped someone could adapt the Winelib Guide to include information about using winegcc. In the worst shape is the Wine Developer's Guide. Currently it's lacking information on widl and the multimedia area needs updating. Dimi also asked that the man pages get integrated into WineHQ so they can be indexed by search engines.

User interaction does have some problems as Alexandre identified. The configuration needs to be completed. Dimi pushed for doing this sooner rather than later. The tools, namely winecfg and regedit, are nearly complete and it's time to just push for cutting over. More difficult problems, such as window management and moving the visible regions into the server, need some work. Dimi suspects some performance issues need to be investigated but it's not exactly clear where the bottlenecks are. As always, Wine desires to have perfect controls but unfortunately we're just not there yet.

Dimi moved on to what needs to be done to improve Winelib and how people use it. He was quite happy that a lot of things have been addressed in this area. The .spec and .reg file formats are set and IDL is improving. The tools have seen constant improvement including winebuild, winegcc, widl, and regedit. One thing that needs to be added is one process to manage all the different desktop apps and that's tentatively called winedesktop. Work has not started yet but it goes hand in hand with Alexandre's planned window management changes. Finally, Wine's API's are in good shape. The first stage of DLL separation is complete and the second stage is ongoing. Wineserver is stable to the point where it's taken for granted.

Finally the developers themselves have a to-do list that mainly affects the internal development of Wine (not that Wine is really developed in any sort of introverted way.) The source code has seen a lot of cleanup over the past year and now it's down to just a few items that need to be moved around in order to complete the job. Alexandre was against doing it all at once. Right now things just need to be taken from controls/, misc/, and documentation/. Concerning infrastructure, the testing framework needs to be more automated and rolled out to a large base of people who can do tests. Dimi also felt internationalization efforts could be addressed better.

Between Alexandre and Dimi it was apparent just how much work has been done over the past two years. Dimi pointed out that in the past when people asked what needed to be done the answer was typically like, "A lot of work." We're now to the point where we can point to a definite set of items and a to-do list that shows things getting knocked off. As progress has happened on bigger items, such as DLL separation, other areas of Wine have seen parallel development and we're accomplishing things above and beyond what are critical. Many of the remaining tasks can be parallelized which is also beneficial. Unfortunately, the hardest things seem to require Alexandre and he only operates in serial mode.

...

At this point we all broke for a lunch provided by CodeWeavers. After an hour break we resumed discussions at 1:30.

...

Next up, Tom Wickline put together a presentation about getting applications to run. Tom has worked quite a bit with Wine and CrossOver Office and had some tricks for getting things to work. The key to just getting something to run seems to be using native Windows DLL's. He has a copy of Windows 98 to copy things to and from. Generally he starts with CrossOver Office and adds the following things in this order:

Lately he's even added native DirectX 8.1 to the mix. Some form of this combination will get Wine to run about 85% of the applications and games he's tested.

One problem with this approach is it relies on access to native versions of DLL's. The goal of Wine is to not have this requirement which of course leads to the magnitude of the project. It did however lead to an interesting revelation by Mark Tempel of a useful way to debug problems. If you simply rename an executable it will first search the local directory for all of the DLL's it needs to run. This can lead to many useful scenarios:

...

Next up was Shachar Shemesh's presentation on internationlization. Shachar pointed out there are actually two different areas associated with this: internationalization and localization. The real challenge to tackle in Wine is internationalization. For me this is an area I don't know much about and it was quite interesting to hear exactly what issues needed to be dealt with.

First, a little background. In regular old Latin-based languages we have it easy. We write words formed into paragraphs that flow left to right across the page. Quite frankly, that's a simple situation to deal with. When you need to support languages like Hebrew or Chinese things get much more difficult. Hebrew, besides using different letters, is written from right to left. But not always - for instance, quoted Latin languages require a shift to left to right. So in the middle of assembling words from right to left you may need to anticipate changing to left to right. For this reason we refer to the language as bi-directional, or BiDi for short. When you start to do string parsing you introduce another set of problems.

That is a non-trivial problem to solve. Shachar noted that no one has a universal standard for doing it. Even Microsoft ships a different version of their bidi support with their own applications. No standard library seems to be used by everyone and instead there is a mix of implementations.

Now, compound that with needing to support Unicode. Years ago things were simple because we had an ASCII character set that consisted of one byte for each character. The lower 7 bits can easily fit the US alphabet. By extending this to the upper 128 characters its easy to extend this to support most other locales that have special characters. What is not possible is to support languages like Chinese, Japanese, or Korean (CJK) that require tens of thousands of characters. Extending this further to multibyte characters represent a hurdle because of the number of different types of encodings. Unicode attempts to solve the problem but introduces a number of challenges because of the various codepages.

Recent work has greatly improved internationalization in Wine. Shachar implemented bidi support by using the ICU library developed by IBM. Aric Stewart has done a lot of work getting CJK support integrated. My impression was that a lot of the really hard problems have been solved or worked around to the point where Wine is quite usable. Most functions no longer make any assumptions about the strings they operate on and function correctly. It was also clear we don't have many active Wine developers who have a need to tackle internationalization problems. With most developers living in the US or western Europe it's not an issue. Shachar, a native Israeli, clearly needed Hebrew support and took the time to do that work.

...

Gavriel State finished up the day by putting forth a proposal for a shared memory wineserver. The basic idea is that an application has full access to all parts of memory used by Wine thereby reducing a lot of calls back and forth to the wineserver process. This context switch is a very costly performance penalty. Threading applications in particular can benefit by accessing the memory of another thread. We've discussed this a bit in past WWN issues. Most recently Alexandre shot down the whole idea because it introduces too many problems with an application (or applications) stomping on memory they shouldn't. It also makes debugging extremely difficult.

Gav showed a dramatic demo of American McGee's Alice running under both WineX and WineX with shared memory. In that particular game the sound and graphics threads needed to sync with each other at an astounding rate. Typical WineX performance produced about 50 frames per second. By moving to shared memory the framerate nearly doubled to about 95 a second.

Threading is not the only area that might get a performance improvement. It might be possible to improve file IO by sharing file descriptors. This approach could also be implemented on an API by API basis. On one end of the spectrum you could not do it at all or it could be user configurable to have a lot of shared memory.

There are other solutions to the performance problem besides using shared memory. Alexandre mentioned that he prefers an approach where Linux kernel functionality is extended (note: this is not the same as the approach of moving wineserver functionality into a Linux kernel module.) If you could extend the Linux kernel to handle things like similar Windows constructs such as WaitForMultipleObjects and semaphores you could translate Windows primitives directly to Linux primitives.

In the end, Alexandre conceded that he would consider an approach that used shared memory that was read-only from the client process. Gav mentioned that TransGaming planned on investigating shared memory options within the next few months.

...

Day one ended wrapped up about 4:30. Jeremy White invited everyone to dinner at the Mall of America. In the mean time Michael Stefaniuc, Dimi Paun, Marcus Meissner, Shachar Shemesh, and I decided to visit the Ice Palace - a big event in Saint Paul. Unbeknownst to us, this attraction seemed to draw the entire population of Minnesota. Given the -20 degree F (about -20 C). Needless to say, we only managed to see the Ice Palace from outside. Dinner and drinks kept us out till about midnight again.

I should note that the open ended schedule seemed to be working quite well. Developers were able to meet face to face with each other and discuss many different architectural issues. Informal discussions brought together a lot of knowledge sharing.

Day two started much like the first. Real time streaming of audio and video seemed to be a problem for irc participants. Various people spent a lot of time on it but there didn't seem to be a good solution. However, the video recording was going well and we can get a good archive of presentations from that. I'd definitely like to thank Joe Baker for taking the time to operate the camera and make technical adjustments. The camera used was owned by Boaz Harrosh who plans on doing the final editing. Aric Stewart manned the boom mike on the second day.

...

Dimi and Francois Gouget were up first to talk about Winelib and the changes to developing with it that have occurred over the past year. Dimi advocates using a two-step approach. The first step is to keep the application on Windows and switch to compiling with MinGW (which at its core uses a gcc compiler.) This gives you the ability to create Makefiles and adapt the build process to autoconf. The next step is to move the files over to Linux and begin using Winelib. At this point problems like case-sensitive filenames, include statements, and line endings need to be adjusted.

Fortunately the tool chain is to the point where a lot of this works. Wine developers really only care about the second stage, and the tools doing the heavy lifting are winegcc and winemaker. Previously, winemaker was used to do all of the things listed above. It needed to guess about the source code structure of a Windows program, create Makefiles, reformat the code, etc. This is a huge task and very complicated to automate. By porting to MinGW first we reduce the process to one that can be taken in small steps. Each one is more controllable and allows for testing a smaller set of changes rather than the shotgun approach of dumping a bunch of alien code on Linux.

Dimi began tackling winegcc about a year ago in a quest to get some applications running under Wine. SourceForge's repository of Windows applications is quite large giving a large testbed. As he explained, "I'm a lazy person. I just wanted to take applications built on MinGW." As a result, several large applications do work now. It's possible to compile a Winelib version of wxWindows just by doing ./configure --with-wine. (Although wxWindows is multi-platform, Dimi pointed out that several applications use other Win32 specific features.)

MinGW, winegcc, and winemaker appear to be an excellent combination. Dimi, somewhat joking, said now with this porting system "we make half the problem someone elses problem." The MinGW resource compiler, windres, is now commandline compatible with Wine's wrc. After moving to Linux, winemaker can automate most of the code reformatting. Then Winegcc wraps the regular gcc on Linux with the necessary arcane magic requirements to link with Wine. At some point in a Winelib port you to switch headers between MinGW and Wine. Dimi pointed out that this could be done while still working on Windows or when the code is moved to Linux.

Future direction involves adding support for shared libraries and creating good documentation to help with the process. Francois brought up the idea of adding Visual C++ project support to winemaker. This would allow it to correctly identify the right include path, the right set of libraries to link with, and the right list of source files for each exe/dll.

...

This led into a presentation by Boaz Harrosh of the work he did recently to port a large application to Linux using Winelib. He ran into several obstacles and had a lot of suggestions for making the process better. He really liked winemaker but felt it needed to easily extensible to support more automated features. The process needed to first accomplish some simple things such as:

>From there, the process needs to become more intelligent. Boaz proposed a pluggable set of "code robots" that could be written to search for and correct problems in a large codebase. The programs could be any combination of shell, perl, or C that did a specific task such as pragma packing. Finally, a final set of Makefiles needs to be produced. Right now Makefile generation is built into winemaker. Boaz suggested adapting winemaker to start with a standard template (not the one built into winemaker) and making changes to it as needed when it's copied throughout a source directory.

...

Switching gears, the ReactOS guys took the stage next. A lot of people were looking forward to see what they've been working on. Four of their developers were present: Steven Vizzini, Steven Edwards, Mark Tempel, and Art Yerkes. It was clear they have a lot of interest in improving Wine. Their goal is to produce a 100% compatible Windows replacement. Development began in 1998 and after several years the kernel is taking shape. It's been self-hosted for a while but now Windows drivers are beginning to work off-the-shelf. The developers (at least those in attendance) have been primarily using VMWare on Linux to develop and debug their operating system.

Of course, the big question on everyone's mind was why you'd even want to bother creating a Windows replacement. Quite simply, it's a free alternative for people who want to use Windows and it has a working environment that's known to most users. In addition, some applications require kernel level components that can't be done with Wine. Binary compatibility also provides a huge library of device drivers.

It was quite impressive to see the operating system run. Even though it looked like Windows, it was eerie to know nothing under the hood was Microsoft. The latest 0.2 release that just came out last week now boots into a graphical explorer that looks just like the traditional Windows desktop. A lot of the functionality required extensions to shell32 and took a few months to develop. That work is now being fed back into Wine.

Steven went into a lot of detail about work that needed to be done, some of which is quite daunting. They have some specific short term goals, such as GUI improvement, drivers, networking, etc. More long term projects include possible support for other platforms, including 64 bit, SMP, and more userland tools.

It was great to see their progress. Everyone was in agreement that their involvement is a win-win situation for both the ReactOS and Wine projects. As more and more of their development moves toward user-level functionality they'll be exercising more functionality of the Wine codebase and hopefully contribute back a lot of improvements.

...

One more thing was on the agenda before lunch. Jan Kratochvil put together a slideshow of his work creating Captive NTFS. Captive lets you access an NTFS filesystem by using a native NT driver. The filesystem driver sits on top of the partition device and disk device. In order to make it work, Jan needed to intercept various calls and pass them properly through native and emulated NT components. Jan had to reimplement about 300 functions in order to make the driver, NTFS.sys, work. Jan used four different methods to implement the necessary calls:

The details are pretty remarkable. Jan has excellent documentation about Captive (http://www.jankratochvil.net/project/captive/doc/) available on his website. What seemed to interest everyone was not the fact that the native NT drivers can be used for filesystem access, but how it could be extended to support other drivers. In particular, native Windows printer drivers, serial drivers, video drivers, and networking drivers may be able to be implemented using a similar method. All that special hardware using "Win" soft drivers might be possible to get working.

Jan also referred everyone to another project he developed in order to make Captive work: TraceFS (http://www.jankratochvil.net/project/TraceFS/) . TraceFS lets you trace internal NT kernel API's. By providing a set of function wrappers and using perl to patch into the original driver it's possible to look into what's being called internally using Windbg (http://www.jankratochvil.net/project/captive/doc/Reverse.html.pl#WinDbg) . There was a discussion on using a technique similar to Captive to make Safedisc copy protection work. All games ship with a version of the Safedisc driver and it might be possible do execute by providing a lower level of emulation.

We broke for lunch at this point. Everyone gathered in the atrium for a group photo (http://www.winehq.com/wineconf/album/2004/p2010033.jpg) . Marcus, coincidentally a gphoto hacker, had the picture annotated and up on the web about an hour later.

...

After lunch Tom Wickline, Boaz Harrosh, Mike Hearn, and Juan Lang got together and conducted a panel discussion of what it's like to get involved with Wine and the barriers preventing others from doing it. All four of them are relatively new to the project but have made some substantial contributions in a short amount of time.

The key really seems to be better communication. The following problems were identified:

Therefore, the decision was made to tackle these items. Mike Hearn agreed to work on setting up better IRC communication modeled after what the GNOME team does. Boaz Harrosh will try to advertise Wine in some of the Windows forums, such as Codeguru. Dimi Paun is already in the process of updating some documentation and that work will continue. We agreed that volatile information does not need to go into the docs at this point because keeping it updated is realistically very difficult. Juan Lang pointed out that the work he did (NetBIOS) was not listed as a to-do item yet it was something he could get involved with because he already understood it. The moral of the story - even large tasks should go into a wishlist because for some people they may not be as difficult as we perceive.

...

Marcus Meissner got up next to discuss COM / OLE. This is an area of Wine that sees very active development from time to time. There is a general desire to move away from native DCOM. Marcus outlined the COM API's that have been implemented using named pipes for communication. He explained the difference between in-process and out-of-process COM and how Wine is set up to work with it.

Two big action items are typelib generation and extending widl to handle more complex IDL files. Typelib generation seems to be the more difficult of the two, but fortunately we're seeing active development on that right now by Alastair Bridgewater. Ultimately, wire-level compatibility with Windows COM seems to be desired but it's a large task.

...

Lionel Ulmer had the honors of the final presentation showing off his work on DirectX. Initial work began in 1997 by Marcus Meissner and led to an initial Direct3D implementation in 1998. Over the past few years development has really picked up and we now have a decent Direct3D 8 implementation. Lionel had 3DMark2000 running and it was quite impressive to see all the 3D rendering. Lionel outlined the most challenging problems facing DirectX developers (in order of importance):

Lionel explained that most games are a mix of the DirectX API and plain old Win32. However, DirectX on it's own is a great API to get involved with. You don't have to know anything about the specifics of Win32 and it's not a horribly designed interface. Only about 50% of the DirectX API's exist in Wine, but Lionel explained that's realistically all that's needed by most games. Outside of the issues above, DirectX in Wine requires some work in a few areas, again in order of importance:

In the near-term, a lot of the work will be behind the scenes. There are known optimizations to be done. The GL back-end can be factorized to share code between the various Direct3D versions. As always, support for more API's will be added.

By far the biggest problem is getting copy protected games to work. A big discussion about it ensued. Steven Edwards agreed to contact various folks to iron out the issues. Technically it seems possible but there were differing opinions of whether we should support the secdrv.sys driver using something like a Captive NTFS implementation or if there's another means to get it working.

...

After that, it was over. Jeremy thanked everyone for attending and offered to keep the facilities open for as long as anyone wanted to hang around. Lionel's presentation had stretched until about 3:45 so that gave Dimi, Vincent B�ron, and I about an hour before we needed to leave for the airport. We spent the time talking to the few folks we hadn't talked to yet. When we left almost everyone was still hanging out. In fact, a lot of folks weren't leaving until the next day so I'm sure discussions went on over dinner.

All in all, things went well. It was nice to be able to put faces with the names. I can't say for sure there were any groundbreaking things discussed, but everyone did get to bounce around a lot of ideas that probably wouldn't have happened without all being in the same room. I'd definitely like to thank CodeWeavers and all their staff for organizing this event.

Sharon And Joy

Kernel Traffic is grateful to be developed on a computer donated by Professor Greg Benson and Professor Allan Cruse in the Department of Computer Science at the University of San Francisco. This is the same department that invented FlashMob Computing. Kernel Traffic is hosted by the generous folks at kernel.org. All pages on this site are copyright their original authors, and distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2.0.